zaterdag 21 februari 2015

Classroom management - Jacob Kounin

Lessons with good flow keep students' attention and prevent deviation because most of the cues for behavior during the lesson are focused on behaviors appropriate for the lesson. Kounin’s concepts include:

Preventing misbehaviour


A teachers ability to correct misbehaviour before it gets out of control and before other students in the class see it and also begin to do it.

Allgegenwärtigkeit der Lehrkraft (Withitness):

  • Lehrkraft registriert alles, auch wenn sie nicht auf alles reagiert
  • Schüler wissen und dies und akzeptieren den Führungsanspruch

A teacher who is ‘withit’ is able to physically move towards a student who is misbehaving while continuing with the lesson.

The teacher makes eye contact with a student who is about
to “shoot a basket “ with a wad of paper.The student behind him, who has seen the interaction, decides he is not likely to get away with shooting a basket either


How a teacher deals with two or more events that are going on in the classroom at the same time. 

Überlappung von inhaltlicher Arbeit, Regelung von Organisationskram und Störungsprävention (Overlapping)

  • Mehrere Dinge gleichzeitig tun
  • Zügige Erledigung von Organisatorischem bei Fortfahren des Unterrichts, Disziplinierungen erfolgen nebenbei

During group activities a teacher is able to provide assistance to a student at one centre while providing words of encouragement to students at other stations.

Manage the lesson


Refers to the teachers ability to have a steady movement or pacing throughout a lesson.

Reibungslosigkeit und Schwung (Momentum)

  • gleichmäßiger Unterrichtsfluss ohne unnötige Unterbrechungen
  • wenig Leerlauf
  • wenig Hektik durch zu hohe Geschwindigkeit

A teacher is able to notice that the class is taking too much time dwelling on a minor concept and quickly moves on while making a mental note to go more in-depth the next day.


Is the lessons continuity.

Geschmeidigkeit des Ablaufs (Smoothness)

  • Harmonischer Ablauf des Unterrichts ohne Brüche

The teacher avoids allowing comments that may distract the attention away from the key points of the lesson.

Maintaining group focus

Group Alerting:

Is engaging the attention of the whole class while individuals are responding.

Group alerting is a technique to keep the entire class involved in the learning process so that students are, potentially, active participants at all times.

Die ganze Lerngruppe im Blick (Group Focus):

  • Auch bei Zuwendung zu einem Einzelschüler hat die Lehrkraft weiterhin das Geschehen in der Klasse im Griff.

Tell students they might be called on next.

Encouraging Accountability:

Communication to the students the their participation will be observed and evaluated.

At the end of a discussion and practice of a new skill, students are told to turn to a neighbour and explain the process to him or her.

High Participation Formats:

Using lessons that define behaviour of students when they are not directly answering a teacher’s question.

High participation formats occur when students are expected to write answers, solve problems, read along, and use manipulative material.

Erkennen und Vermeiden vorgetäuschter Schüleraufmerksamkeit (Avoiding Mock Participation)

  • Interessante Inhalte und geschickte Arbeitsaufträge vermeiden vorgespielte Aufmerksamket

Transition management


The interval between any two activities.

Kounin found that smooth and effective transitions are one of the most important techniques in maintaining student involvement and class control.

Geschicktes Management der Übergänge (Managing Transitions)

  • Der Übergang von einem zum anderen Unterrichtsschritt ist eindeutig organisiert
  • Stundenanfäge und –abschlüsse sind klar zu erkennen